South Tyrol

Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy

Country:
Province:
South Tyrol
Population:
504 643

About South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province of northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol in German, Autonomous Province of Bolzano - Alto Adige in Italian and Autonomous Provinzia de Bulsan - Südtirol in Ladino, which reflects the three main language groups to which its population belongs. The province is the northernmost in Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometers (2,857 square miles) and has a total population of 530,009 inhabitants as of 2018. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano ( German: Bolzano; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan).

According to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population speaks German (standard German in written form and Austro-Bavarian dialect in spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1% speak Ladin, a rhetorantic language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speak another language as a first language.

The province is granted a significant level of self-government, consisting of a wide range of exclusive legislative and executive powers and a tax regime that allows it to retain 90% of revenue, while remaining a net contributor to the national budget . ] As of 2016, South Tyrol is the richest province in Italy and among the richest in the European Union.

In the wider context of the European Union, the province is one of the three members of the Tyrol-Alto Adige-Trentino Euroregion, which corresponds almost exactly to the historical region of Tyrol. The other members are the state of Tyrol in Austria, in the north and east, and the Italian autonomous province of Trento in the south.

First name

South Tyrol (occasionally South Tyrol) is the most commonly used term in English for the province, and its use reflects that it was created from a part of the southern part of the historic county of Tyrol, a former state of the Holy Roman Empire and land of the crown of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. German and Ladin-speaking speakers usually refer to the area as South Tyrol; the Italian equivalent South Tyrol (sometimes analyzed South Tyrol ) is becoming increasingly common

Alto Adige (literally translated into English: "Alto Adige"), one of the Italian names for the province, is also used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige river at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who created the Department of Alto Adige, part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. It was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-war I creation and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol.

The official name of the province today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol. German native speakers usually define it not as a Provinz, but as a land (like the Länder of Germany and Austria). Provincial institutions refer to the use of the Landes- prefix, such as Landesregierung (state government) and Landeshauptmann (governor).

The official name in Italian is the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - Alto Adige, in Ladin Autonomous Province of Balsan / Bulsan - Südtirol.

History

Annexation by Italy

South Tyrol as an administrative entity was born during the First World War. The Allies promised the area in Italy with the 1915 Treaty of London as an incentive to enter the war on their side. Until 1918 it was part of the Austro-Hungarian princely county of Tyrol, but this almost completely German-speaking territory was occupied by Italy at the end of the war in November 1918 and was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1919. The province as it exists today it was created in 1926 after an administrative reorganization of the Kingdom of Italy, and was incorporated together with the province of Trento in the newly created region of Venice Tridentina ("Trentine Venetia").

With the rise of Italian fascism, the new regime made efforts to continue the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banned from the public service, the teaching of German was officially prohibited and the German newspapers were censored (with the exception of the fascist Alpenzeitung). The regime also favored immigration from other Italian regions.

Source: Wikipedia
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provincia_di_Bolzano