Puglia (/ əˈpuːliə / ə-POO-lee-ə; Italian: Puglia ; Neapolitan: Pùglia ; Albanian: Pulia; Ancient Greek: Ἀπουλία, Romanized: Apoulía) is a region of Italy, located in the southern part of the country's peninsula, bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast and the Strait of Otranto and the Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region encompasses 19,345 square kilometers (7,469 square miles) and its population is approximately four million.
It borders with the other Italian regions of Molise in the north, Campania in the west and Basilicata in the south-west. Its capital is Bari.
The Apulian coast is longer than that of any other continental Italian region. To the north, the Gargano promontory extends into the Adriatic as a "spur" ("spur"), while to the south the Salento peninsula forms the "heel" ("heel") of the Italian boot. The highest peak in the region is Monte Cornacchia (1,152 meters above sea level) in the Daunian Mountains, north along the Apennines.
It houses two national parks, the Alta Murgia National Park and the Gargano National Park.
Outside the national parks of the North and West, most of Puglia and in particular of Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is typically Mediterranean with hot, dry and sunny summers and mild and rainy winters. Snowfall, especially on the coast, is rare but occurred recently in January 2019 (following the snow in March 2018 and January 2017). Puglia is among the warmest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures that sometimes reach and exceed 40 ° C in Lecce and Foggia.
Coastal areas, especially on the Adriatic and in the southern region of Salento, are often exposed to winds of different intensity and direction, which strongly influence local temperatures and conditions, sometimes on the same day. The northern Bora wind of the Adriatic can lower temperatures, humidity and moderate summer heat, while the southern wind of the Scirocco from North Africa can increase temperatures, humidity and occasionally drop red dust from the Sahara.
On some days in spring and autumn, it can be hot enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast, while at the same time the cold winds justify jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast.
Puglia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was colonized for the first time by the Mycenaean Greeks.
Some parts of the regions were conquered by the Muslim Saracens and the Emirate of Bari was established for a short period of time by Muhammad Abul Abbas of Sicily.
Numerous castles were built in the area by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Corona di Puglia".
Puglia was an autonomous duchy until 1130 when its duke became king of Sicily. After 1282, when the kingdom lost the island of Sicily, Puglia remained part of the residual Kingdom of Naples (also known as the Kingdom of Sicily), and remained so until the unification of Italy in 1861. This kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442, then it was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. Following the Franco-Spanish war of 1501– 1504, Naples again came under the dominion of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When the barbarian pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took about 7000 slaves. The Apulian coast was sometimes occupied by the Turks and other times by the Venetians.
In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital in Turin. In the words of a historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is now closer to seventeen foreign capitals than to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. GDP per capita is low compared to the national average and represents around 68.1% of the EU average .
The share of gross value added of the agricultural and services sectors was higher than the national average in 2000. The region has industries specialized in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia; footwear and fabrics in the Barletta area and wood and furniture in the Murge area to the west.
Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Puglia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. This growth over several decades represents a serious challenge for the hydrogeological system.
The thriving Apulian economy is divided into numerous sectors that boast several leading companies: Aerospace (Sitael, Blackshape, Leonardo S.p.A.);
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apulia