Campania (/ kæmˈpeɪniə /, also in the United Kingdom: / kæmˈpæniə /, US: / kɑːmˈpɑːniə /, Italian: , Neapolitan: ) is a region of southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third most populous region in Italy; its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated region in the country. Located in the southwestern part of the Italian peninsula, with the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegrean islands and Capri for administration as part of the region.
The coastal areas of the region were colonized by the ancient Greeks between the eighth and seventh centuries BC, becoming part of the so-called Magna Grecia. The capital of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture, especially with regards to gastronomy, music, architecture, archaeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis, Paestum, Aeclanum, Stabiae and Velia. The very name of Campania derives from the Latin, since the Romans knew the region as Campania Felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural beauty of Campania makes it extremely important in the tourism sector, in particular along the Amalfi Coast, Vesuvius and the island of Capri.
Ancient tribes and Samnite wars
The region known today as Campania was inhabited from the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, if not earlier, by the Oscan-speaking Italic tribes, namely Osci, Opici, Aurunci, Ausones, Sidicini, Campanians (where the name of the region comes from ) and by the Lucani (like the southern part of the region, which corresponds roughly to a large part of the modern province of Salerno, was considered part of the ancient region of Lucania). Around the period between the ninth and sixth centuries BC, the Etruscans began to found colonies in the Campania plain (internal territories of the modern provinces of Caserta and Naples), in the Agro Nocerino Sarnese and Agro Picentino ( both in modern- today's Salerno province), where they essentially replicated their political model of Dodecapolis (twelve cities), founding the cities of Hyria (today's Nola), Irnthi or Marcina (modern Salerno), Amina ( today's Pontecagnano Faiano), Velcha, Velsu and Uri, as well as assimilating the pre-existing Oscan cities of Capua (today's Santa Maria Capua Vetere), Nuceria (the modern municipalities of Nocera Superiore and Nocera Inferiore in their political-urban domain) ), Suessula, Acerra, Ercolano, Pompei, Stabiae and Sorrento. Meanwhile, during the 8th century BC, the Greek-speaking peoples from Evia (in central Greece), known as Cumai, began to found the same colonies around the coastal areas of the modern province. of Naples and in the foundations of the nearby islands, among others, the cities of Cuma, Pithekoūsai (today's Ischia) and Dicaearchia (today's Pozzuoli).
At some point in history, a distinct group of Oscan-speaking tribes from Sannio (in central-southern Italy), the Samnites, moved to Campania.
Since the Samnites were more warlike than other populations of Oscan, they easily took control of the cities of Capua and Cuma, in an area that at the time was one of the most prosperous and fertile of the Italian peninsula. During 340 BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with Rome claiming the rich pastures of northern Campania during the first Samnite war.
Since most of southern Italy was under Roman control at the time, the only large independent settlement left in the region was the Greek colony of Neapolis, and when the city was finally captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitan Greeks were left with no chance. invite the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, kicking off the second Samnite war. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo reconquered Neapolis in 326 BC. and allowed it to remain a Greek city with a certain autonomy as civitas foederata, while it was strongly aligned with Rome. The second Samnite war ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and other regions further south.
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campania