Sardinia an island in the Mediterranean Sea and politically one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea after Sicily and is located west of the Italian peninsula, north of Tunisia and in the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.
The Sardinia region is one of the five in Italy that enjoy a certain degree of domestic autonomy, guaranteed by a specific Statute. Its official name is the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (Sardinian: Autònoma de Sardigna Region, letter "Autonomous Region of Sardinia"). It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the capital of the region and also its largest city. The indigenous language of Sardinia and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Gallurese, Catalan, Alghero and Ligurian tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.
Sardinia has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. The most iconic civilization on the island is the indigenous Nuragic civilization, which lasted from the 18th century BC. to 238 BC or the 2nd century AD in some areas and the 6th century AD in the region known as Barbagia. After a period of political and economic alliance between the Nuragic Sardinians and the Phoenicians, the island was partially conquered by Carthage and Rome, respectively at the end of the sixth century BC. and in 238 BC; the Roman occupation lasted for 700 years, followed in the early Middle Ages by the Vandals and the Byzantines. Since the island was disconnected from the extent of the territorial influence of Byzantium, the Sardinians equipped themselves with an autonomous political organization, which led to the birth of the four judges. While the Italian maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa struggled to exert increasing political interference over indigenous states, the Crown of Aragon assumed the island as the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1324. This Iberian kingdom was to last until 1718, when it was sold to the House of Savoy and subsequently merge politically with the Savoyard domains based on the Italian continent. During Italian unification, the Savoys pursued a policy of expansion in the rest of the Italian peninsula, later making their reign renamed the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, which became the current Italian Republic in 1946.
Due to the variety of the island's ecosystems, which include mountains, woods, plains, largely uninhabited territories, streams, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, Sardinia has been metaphorically defined as a microcontinent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have enhanced the beauty of its unspoiled landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.
The name Sardinia has Latin origins. It derives from the pre-Roman ethnonym * s (a) r-, later Romanized as sardus (female Sardinian). He makes his first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the existence of the name when the Phoenician merchants arrived.
According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues, Sardinia (indicated by most ancient Greek authors such as Sardò, Σαρδὼ) and also his people could have been named after a legendary woman who passed by Sardò (Σαρδὼ), born in Sardis (Σάρδεις), capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia. There have also been speculations that identify the ancient nuraghi with the Sherden, one of the peoples of the sea. It is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use also as an adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero god Sardus Pater ("Sardinian Father" or " Father of the Sardinians "), as well as being the root of the adjective" sardonic ". In classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names in addition to Sardò (Σαρδὼ) or Sardinia, such as Ichnusa (the Latinized form of the Greek Ἰχνοῦσα), Sandaliotis (Σανδαλιῶτις ) and Argyrophleps (Αργυρόϕλεψ).
Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus), with an area of 24,100 square kilometers (9,305 square miles). It is located between 38 ° 51 'and 41 ° 18' north latitude (respectively Isola del Toro and Isola La Presa) and 8 ° 8 'and 9 ° 50' east longitude (respectively Capo dell'Argentiera and Capo Comino). To the west of Sardinia is the Sardinian Sea, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea; east of Sardinia there is the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is also an element of the Mediterranean Sea.
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