About The Marches
Marche (/ ˈmɑːrkeɪ / MAR-kay, Italian: (listen)) or Marches (/ ˈmɑːrtʃɪz / MAR-chiz) is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural brand name, originally referred to the medieval March of Ancona and to the nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. The Marches are famous for their footwear tradition, with the best and most luxurious Italian footwear produced in this region. [Citation needed]
The region is located in the central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic of San Marino in the north, Tuscany in the west, Umbria in the south-west, Abruzzo and Lazio in the south and the sea. Adriatic to the east. With the exception of the river valleys and the often very narrow coastal belt, the land is hilly. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, runs along the coast of the entire territory. Inland, the mountainous nature of the region, still today, allows relatively little to travel north and south, except through winding pass roads. The Umbrian enclave of Monte Ruperto (a subdivision of the Municipality of Città di Castello) is entirely surrounded by the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, which constitutes the northern part of the region. Urbino, one of the main cities in the region, was the birthplace of Raphael, as well as an important center of Renaissance history.
The Marches cover an area of 9,694 square kilometers (3,743 square feet) of the central Adriatic side between Emilia-Romagna in the north, Tuscany and Umbria in the west, and Lazio and Abruzzo in the south, the entire eastern border being formed by the Adriatic. Most of the region is mountainous or hilly, whose main features are the Apennine chain along the internal border and a vast system of hills that descend towards the Adriatic. With the sole exception of Mount Carrier, 2,476 meters (8,123 feet) high, the mountains do not exceed 2,400 meters (7,900 feet). The hilly area covers two thirds of the region and is interrupted by large badlands with numerous - albeit short - rivers and flood plains perpendicular to the main chain. The parallel mountain ranges contain deep river gorges, the best known are those of Furlo, Rossa and Frasassi.
The coastal area is 173 kilometers (107 miles) long and is relatively flat and straight, except for the hilly area between Gabicce and Pesaro to the north and the eastern slopes of Monte Conero near Ancona.
The climate is temperate. The hinterland, in the mountainous areas, is more continental with cold and often snowy winters; near the sea it is more Mediterranean. Precipitation varies from 1000 to 1500 mm. per year inside and 600–800 mm. per year on the Adriatic coast.
The Marches were known in ancient times as the Piceno territory. The Piceni or Picentes (ancient Greek: Πίκεντες) were the Italic tribe who lived in Piceno during the Iron Age. Many finds of their time are exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of the Marche in Ancona. In the 4th century BC, the northern area was occupied by the Senones, a tribe of Gauls. The battle of Sentinum was fought in the Marche region in 295 BC. subsequently, the Romans founded numerous colonies in the area, connected to Rome by Via Flaminia and Via Salaria. Ascoli was the seat of the Italic resistance during the social war (91–88 BC).
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths. After the Gothic war, it was part of the Byzantine exarchate of Ravenna (Ancona, Fano, Pesaro, Rimini and Senigallia which form the so-called Pentapoli). After the fall of the Exarchate, it was briefly in the possession of the Lombards, but was conquered by Charlemagne at the end of the eighth century. In the IX-XI century the marches of Camerino, Fermo and Ancona were created, hence the modern name.
The Marches were nominally part of the Papal States, but most of the territory was under the local lords, while the main cities were governed as free municipalities. In the twelfth century the municipality of Ancona resisted both the imperial authority of Federico Barbarossa and the Republic of Venice, and was a maritime republic in its own right. An attempt to restore the papal sovereignty of Gil de Albornoz in the 14th century was short-lived.
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marche