Umbria (/ ˈʌmbriə / UM-bree-ə, Italian: ) is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and the Marmore Falls and is crossed by the Tiber river. The regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, culinary delicacies, artistic heritage and influence on culture.
The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historic cities such as the university center of Perugia, Assisi, a world heritage site associated with San Francesco d'Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue , Terni, the birthplace of San Valentino, Norcia, the birthplace of San Benedetto, Città di Castello, the main center of the early Renaissance located in the Upper Tiber Valley, Gubbio, the birthplace of San Ubaldo, Spoleto, Orvieto, Todi, birthplace of the Franciscan mystic Jacopone da Todi, Castiglione del Lago, Narni, Amelia and other small towns.
Umbria is bounded by Tuscany to the west and north, from the Marches to the east and Lazio to the south. Partly hilly and mountainous, partly flat and fertile due to the Tiber valley, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border with the Marches, at 2,476 meters (8,123 feet ); the lowest point is Attigliano, 96 meters (315 feet). It is the only Italian region that has neither a coast nor a common border with other countries. The municipality of Città di Castello has an enclave called Monte Ruperto in the Marche region. Inside Umbria there is the hamlet of Cospaia, which was a small republic from 1440 to 1826, created by chance.
Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley ("Valle Umbra"), which extends from Perugia to Spoleto, and the Tiber valley ("Val Tiberina"), north and west of the former, from Città di Castle on the border with Lazio. The Tiber river forms the approximate border with Lazio, even if its source is just beyond the Tuscan border. The three main tributaries of the Tiber flow south through Umbria. The Chiascio basin is relatively uninhabited up to Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometers (6 miles) further on, it joins the Tiber in Torgiano. The Topino, cutting the Apennines with passages that follow the Via Flaminia and the following roads, makes a sharp turn in Foligno to flow north-west for a few kilometers before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, which flows into the southernmost Tiber, in Terni; its valley is called Valnerina. The high Nera cuts the ravines in the mountains; the lower one, in the Tiber basin, created a large alluvial plain.
In ancient times, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow and interlocking lakes, Lacus Clitorius and Lacus Umber. They were drained by the Romans for several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire led to the recharge of the basin. It was drained a second time, almost a thousand years later, during a period of 500 years: the Benedictine monks began the process in the 13th century and the drainage was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century.
The eastern part of the region, crossed by numerous defects, has often been hit by earthquakes: the last were that of 1997 (which hit Foligno, Assisi and Nocera Umbra) and those of 2016 (which hit Norcia and Valnerina).
In literature, Umbria is called the green heart of Italy or the green heart of Italy. The phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, whose subject is the source of the Clitunno river in Umbria.
The region takes its name from the Umbrian people, an Italic people that was absorbed by the expansion of the Romans. The capital of Umbria was Gubbio, where today the longest and most important document of any Osco-Umbrian linguistic group, the Iguvine Tablets, is housed. Pliny the Elder narrated an imaginative derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea of having survived the family flood of Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the oldest breed in Italy. Indeed, they belonged to a larger family of neighboring peoples with similar roots. Their language was Umbrian, one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by the Gallic tribes.
The Umbrians were probably born, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of Terramara and the proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbria