Veneto (US: / ˈvɛnətoʊ, ˈveɪn-, -neɪt-, ˈvɛnɛtoʊ /, Italian: ; Venetian: Vèneto or Venetia is one of 20 regions of Italy Its population is approximately five million, in fifth place in Italy. The capital of the region is Venice.
Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD Later, after a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and commercial empires in the world. After the Napoleonic wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed to the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following the Third Italian War of Independence.
In addition to Italian, most inhabitants also speak Venetian  which is divided into five varieties.
Since 1971 the Statute of the Veneto has defined the citizens of the region "the Venetian people". Article 1 defines Veneto as an "autonomous region", "consisting of the Venetian people and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venice, Verona and Vicenza", maintaining "links with the Venetians in the world ". Article 2 establishes the principle of "self-government of the Venetian people" and instructs the Region to "promote the historical identity of the Venetian people and civilization". Despite these claims, approved by the Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special status, unlike its north-eastern and north-western neighbors, respectively Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol.
Veneto is home to a remarkable nationalist movement, known as Venetian nationalism or Venetianism. The largest festival in the region is the Liga Veneta, a founding component of the Northern League. The current Venetian president is Luca Zaia (Liga Veneta - Lega Nord), re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the votes. The Zaia II government also includes Forza Italia and is supported externally by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers of Italy. In 2017 a referendum on autonomy took place: 57.2% of Venetians revealed themselves, 98.1% voted "yes" to "further forms and special conditions of autonomy".
Having been a land of mass emigration for a long time in history, Veneto is today one of the largest immigrant reception regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners (9.9% of the regional population; January 2018), in particular Romanians (25.2%), Moroccans (9.3%), Chinese (7.1%), Moldovans (7.0%) and Albanians (6.9%).
Veneto is the eighth largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2 (7,103.9 square miles). It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol. In its northernmost corner it also borders with Austria.
The north-south extension of the Veneto region is 210 km (130 mi) from the Austrian border to the mouth of the river Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous (Carnic Alps, Eastern Dolomites and Venetian Prealps). The highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada massif at 3,342 m (10,965 feet). Other peaks in the Dolomites are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo and the Pale di San Martino. The Venetian Prealps are not so high and range from 700 m (2,300 feet) to 2,200 m (7,200 feet). A distinctive feature of the Prealps are the rock formations, including abysses and sink holes; the Spluga della Preta, located in the chain of Monte Lessini in the province of Verona, has an explored depth of 985 m (3,232 feet), being the deepest cave in Italy. Fossil deposits are also abundant there.
The Po Valley, which covers 57% of Veneto, extends from the mountains to the Adriatic Sea, broken only by some low hills: the Euganean Hills, the Berici Hills, the Asolani Hills and Montello, which make up the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is divided into the upper plain (sprinkled with gravel and not very fertile) and the lower plain (rich in water sources and arable land). The lower plain is both a pillar of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.
Numerous rivers flow in the region: Po, Adige, Brenta, Bacchiglione, Livenza, Piave and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to the Veneto region. The coast covers approximately 200 km (120 mi), of which 100 km (62 mi) are beaches.
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veneto